In-Text Citations Made Easy (APA)

[Music] to begin a workshop let’s talk about the three most common mistake students make mistake number one is sort of obvious no sources used at all here’s an example the student makes some excellent points about a leaders emotional style and especially about one of the courses key concepts generosity but in the entire post the student does not refer to any of the many sources that discuss illustrate and explain the role that generosity plays in leadership mistake number two is providing only a reference citation every time you use a source you must have both an in-text citation and a reference citation they are a matched fair by not providing an in-text citation the reader does not know what specific information in the post was taken from the source that is listed as a reference in this example we have three paragraphs about communication strengths but no in-text citations so the reader must ask which of the three sources listed down below apply to which paragraph we don’t know because there aren’t any in-text citations to fix this DQ post we must add an in-text citation to the sentence or sentences that contain information from the sources that we’re using the information in the sentence about practice comes from the Welch video so we would add an in-text citation at the end of that sentence all in-text citations consist of the author’s last name date of publication and page number unless you’re referring to the whole work or quoting from a source that doesn’t have page numbers so let’s add parentheses Welch comma 2015 close parentheses and there is no page number because it’s a video the information in the second paragraph that training as an actor Hills comes from the Halperin and lubricants page one so let’s add that in-text citation the information in the third paragraph comes from the Alessandra PDF the entire PDF is about the Platinum rule so no page number is needed so now the post looks like this containing both abbreviated in-text citations in the paragraphs which in turn refer to reference citations at the bottom that provide enough info for the reader to find the source on his or her own one other thing to notice an in-text citation can only apply to the sentence it is a part of that’s right an in-text citation can apply only to one sentence at a time that raises the question how many times must I cite a single source and one paragraph the answer is as many times as you use that source if you use the same source three times in one paragraph you must cite it three times in that paragraph here’s an example Barker and Gower 2010 examine the use of leadership presence as a way to increase productivity in the workplace Parker and Gower present a model of leadership that facilitates communication throughout the organization Barker and galleries approach may not be suitable for all organizations but the information provided can be useful to any leader looking to increase communication success in the workplace and there’s the citation Barclays and Gower 2010 what is leadership presence so a little too much Barker and Gower I think so too at least the author knew that you only have to give a sources publication date once in a paragraph however avoiding the repetition of the author’s names is easy you just refer back to the source you’ve already cited like this Barker and our 2010 examined the use of leadership presence as a way to increase productivity in the workplace the author’s present a model of leadership that facilitates communication throughout the organization this approach might not be suitable for all organizations but the information provided can be useful to any leader looking to increase communication success in the workplace so the phrases the authors this approach and the information provided all make it clear that the sentences in the paragraphs all of them are based on Barker and Gower and we did it without repeating the author’s last names this is perfectly legal and necessary when you’re discussing a single source extensively in one paragraph and that brings us to a mistake number three end of paragraph citations like you see here when an in-text citation comes at the end of a paragraph the reader really doesn’t know for sure if the citation refers only to the last sentence of the paragraph or to all of the sentences in the paragraph above it so you want to avoid an end of paragraph citation unless it makes exactly clear which symptoms or sentences are being cited now let’s fix it notice how the use of the source has been integrated into the paragraph and it’s clear the citation refers only to the last sentence keep in mind that there are two and only two ways to use a source whenever you write one you can quote from it or two you can rephrase it in your own wording now regardless of whether you quote exactly or whether you rephrase it into your own wording you must always cite the source here are some examples the first one is a quote so obviously there is an in-text citation now notice three things a signal phrase such as according to or Adelle a States is used to introduce the use of a source that’s called signaling the source the author’s last name add la along with the year of publication 2017 is an in-text citation since the author’s last name Adela is mentioned in the sentence as a noun it is not inside the parentheses and finally a page numbers use if the information comes from a specific part of the source in the case of the quotation obviously the information is coming from a very specific part now if we rephrase the quote from a going into our own wording we still must provide an in-text citation as you see here now the in-text citation comes at the end of the sentence and the author’s name is inside the parentheses because the student writer chose not to use the author’s name